Some features of SPs
I would like to define SPs as having the following three major components.
Anger and aggression are the primary components of SPs’ emotional expression. However, it is often unclear to whom SPs are directing their anger. Indeed, they appear to direct their anger in a rather indiscriminate fashion, such as yelling at or lunging toward whoever is around them. However, it might also hurt the body of the host personality, or even attempt to kill him/her, which ultimately means killing itself.
It is worth noting that SPs’ aggressiveness is typically accompanied by a lack of the same in the host and other main personality states. Many parts of the personality seen among patients with DID often do not know how to express, or even feel, angry and frustrated. SPs might typically appear in situations where other people have initially demonstrated aggressive behaviors or intrusiveness towards the host personality. The host personality does not, however, typically intentionally “summon” or “invite” the SP into the scene in response to aggression from others. Instead, the host personality may become at a loss and thereby cause the SP to manifest. The whole process occurs rather instantly and automatically.
It is worth noting that In the Studies of Hysteria (1895), Freud proposed an opposite view, that a person intentionally and defensively mobilizes different parts of the personality in such critical situations, and disagreed with Breuer’s non-dynamic view (a “hypnoid state.”) that such a state occurs automatically.